Lost Star Catalog of Hipparchus Found in the Arms of Atlas Statue
long-lost star catalog
of Hipparchus, which dates back to 129 B.C., has been found on a Roman
statue called the Farnese Atlas.
Hipparchus was one of the greatest astronomers of antiquity and his star catalog was the first in the world, as well as the most influential. The catalog was lost early in the Christian era, perhaps in the fire at the great library in Alexandria.
The Farnese Atlas is a Roman statue, dating to the second century, that depicts the Titan Atlas holding a sky globe on his shoulder. The statue, currently housed in Italy, includes relief figures on the globe depicting the ancient Greek constellations in fine detail.
Louisiana State University astrophysicist Bradley E. Schaefer.discovered that the constellation figures on the Farnese Atlas are an accurate rendition of Hipparchus' star catalog. According to Schaefer, the discovery will likely lead to the solution of several long-debated questions.
"The constellations are one of our more enduring intellectual properties, and in antiquity, they turned the night sky into familiar territory. Dr. Schaefer's clever and disciplined analysis of the oldest graphic representation of the traditional Greek constellations reveals unexpected roots of scientific astronomy in a celebrated work of ancient art," said E.C. Krupp, director of the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles.
Schaefer, who earned his doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1983, specializes in astronomy and astrophysics. He has long been interested in the history of astronomy and has written extensively on the subject. He began his examination of the Farnese Atlas statue while conducting research on ancient constellation lore.
Schaefer said that scientists have long held Hipparchus in high regard for his work, which was conducted between 140 B.C. and 125 B.C. He is known for the discovery of the first nova and a process called precession; a theory for the motions of the sun and moon; top-quality planetary observations; and the first-ever catalog of about 1,000 stars. Unfortunately, only one of Hipparchus' books has survived to today: "Commentaries," which describes the constellation figures in detail. The rest of his written work is known only through the references of later astronomers. For example, Schaefer said, Hipparchus' star catalog was described in the work "Almagest" by the influential Greek astronomer and geographer Ptolemy, who lived around A.D. 85 to A.D. 165.
The Farnese Atlas – roughly seven feet tall and made of marble – is now in the Farnese Collection in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples, Italy. The statue's sky globe, which is 26 inches in diameter, shows 41 Greek constellations, as well as the celestial equator, tropics and ecliptic. Art historians have concluded that the statue is a late Roman copy of a Greek original. Schaefer said that the constellations are accurately depicted, so the sculptor must have based his work on some specific astronomical observations. Throughout the last century, Schaefer explained, these observations have been attributed to many sources, but not Hipparchus.
Schaefer said that a number of facts led to the conclusion that the statue's sky globe was based on Hipparchus' catalog.
Precession, as discovered by Hipparchus, is a process whereby the stars and constellation figures slowly move with respect to the celestial equator, tropics and lines of constant right ascension. This provides the key to dating the original observations, Schaefer explained, because it means that investigators need only look on the sky globe to see what date matches the constellation positions. Thus, Schaefer traveled to Naples and made the first astronomical analysis of the constellation positions.
For his analysis, Schaefer took his own pictures, because the photographic analysis requires knowledge of the distance between globe and camera. He measured a total of 70 positions on the globe and made a formal mathematical fit to find the best date. Schaefer concluded that the best date for the original observations is 125 B.C. He said that the normal margin of error in this result is ±55 years. In other words, Schaefer said, there is a two-thirds chance that the real date was somewhere between 180 B.C. and 70 B.C.
Schaefer said that the date of 125 B.C. immediately points to Hipparchus' circa-129 B.C. catalog as the original observational source. Indeed, he said, all previously proposed source candidates are confidently eliminated because they come from time periods that are either too early or too late.
Positioning on the globe is another key indicator of the source, said Schaefer. The positioning of the constellation figures on the Farnese Atlas has a typical accuracy of 3.5 degrees. Schaefer said that such accuracy is essentially impossible to achieve by simple verbal descriptions (as found in the works of other potential sources, such as Aratus or Eudoxus) which are accurate to around 8 degrees. Nevertheless, ancient star catalogs would have the required accuracy. However, it is Hipparchus who is known to have a star catalog created around the correct time, 129 B.C., whereas the next catalog, created by Ptolemy, came much too late, in A.D. 128.
In addition, Schaefer said it is known that Hipparchus constructed many sky globes based on his star catalog. For instance, ancient coins depict Hipparchus seated in front of a globe and Ptolemy writes explicitly of Hipparchus making such globes. Thus, Schaefer explained, a likely scenario is that Hipparchus used his catalog to make an accurate globe, which was later copied exactly by a Greek statue sculptor. Then, the Greek statue was later copied by a Roman sculptor.
The constellations of the Farnese Atlas also contain many specific details that point to Hipparchus as the original observer. Schaefer made a comparison between the Farnese Atlas and all ancient constellation descriptions, including those of Ptolemy and other ancient astronomers and thinkers, such as Hipparchus, Aratus, Eratosthenes, Eudoxus and Homer. All ancient sources other than Hipparchus have many and major differences in their descriptions of the constellations. However, the detailed comparison shows Hipparchus' "Commentary" to have no differences and many unique similarities.
Thus, the case for Hipparchus' lost star catalog appearing on the Farnese Atlas is based on:
* The derived date of
125 B.C., which matches Hipparchus and rejects all other candidates;
Schaefer said that the discovery of Hipparchus' lost star catalog on the Farnese Atlas could provide answers to two long-standing questions that have been the source of heated debate: What did Hipparchus use as coordinates and what fraction of Hipparchus' star catalog made it into Ptolemy's "Almagest?" Now, Schaefer said, with an accurate representation of Hipparchus' catalog, researchers can make exhaustive correlations between all constellation figures on the Farnese Atlas and those contained within "Almagest." But, Schaefer said, perhaps the best part of the discovery is "simply that we have recovered one of the most famous known examples of lost ancient wisdom."
Lost Star of Myth And Time
by Walter Cruttenden
St. Lynn's Press, 2005
From his study of ancient texts and mythologies, the author of this intriguing work of speculative science postulates a Golden Age of civilization some 11,500 years ago that declined gradually and globally, bottoming out with the fall of the Roman Empire and the "darkest point of man" in the year 499.
The good news is that things have been steadily improving for the past 15 centuries, and that human consciousness and enlightenment will continue to expand for dozens more.
Walter Cruttenden, an amateur "archaeo-astronomer" and author, argues his theory that myths and stories of repeating cycles of Golden Ages and Dark Ages are caused by "stellar forces" affecting the Earth and its inhabitants as our solar system moves along a 24,000-year binary orbit.
Cruttenden's "binary theory of progression" is based on the possibility of the Sun being in a binary orbit with Sirius, as star in the constellation Canis Major.
"When we finally reassemble
our past with the realization that we are part of a greater system with
a precession cycle just as real in terms of light and dark phases as
day and the year -- then we can begin to understand our place in the
Year and its seasons," he writes. "From this we might find
is no longer a menagerie of disconnected and often anomalous facts."
Survivors Of Atlantis
Their Impact on the World
by Frank Joseph
Bear & Company, 2004
Based on the author's theory that the fabled Atlantis was part of a Bronze Age civilization in the Aegean Sea that perished beneath wars and natural catastrophes some 3,200 years ago, this book suggests that small groups of survivors spread out across the globe, from the Great Lakes of North American to the Yucatan Peninsula in Central America and the Nile River Valley of Egypt, as evidenced by the cultural and technological advancements that occurred in those places at that time.
Franz Joseph, whose previous book detailed The Destruction of Atlantis, describes four periods of global cataclysms - meteor impacts, climate change, earthquakes and tsunamis -- that brought an end to the Bronze Age and links them to the flowering of new civilizations in other parts of the world.
"When the violence passed survivors beheld a landscape transfigured by disaster," Joseph suggests. "Many despaired of everreconstructing their homeland and fled to distant parts of the world, away from a place obviously cursed by the gods. Atlantean society suffered a brain drain as most of its leading thinkers joined mass migrations to the Nile Valley and Mesopotamia. In these regions they cooperated with local inhabitants, sharing their technology and spirituality to spark new dynasties and cities."
A speculative work with no
original science, little documentable evidence and plenty of
this book nevertheless stimulates the imagination and inspires fresh
on ancient subjects.
The Great Year
This compelling documentary explores the possibility that the fall of ancient civilizations around the globe, and the rise of modern civilization, might be related to our Sun's motion around a companion star.
Order a Copy
The Regeneration of Complex Societies
edited by Glenn M. Schwartz and John J. Nichols
University of Arizona Press, 2006
From the Euphrates Valley to the southern Peruvian Andes, early complex societies have risen and fallen, but in some cases they have also been reborn. Prior archaeological investigation of these societies has focused primarily on emergence and collapse. This is the first book-length work to examine the question of how and why early complex urban societies have reappeared after periods of decentralization and collapse.